Posted: December 2nd, 2014
Anthropology 132 Native People of North America Week 1 Quiz and Discussion
Answer test questions.
1. Ways the Spanish mission system impacted Indians include
A. cooperative farming for trade with the missions.
B. preservation of Indian cultures.
C. removal from their homes for slave labor.
D. better health and longer life expectancy.
2. In the 1830s the Supreme Court ruled tha
A. Indian tribes were really like foreign countries.
B. Indian tribes must become civilized.
C. Eastern tribes should be moved west.
D. Indian tribes were sovereign, dependent nations.
3. The English came to the New World
A. to gain land.
B. to ease unemployment in Great Britain.
C. to get rid of criminals.
D. none of the above
E. all of the above
4. The repartimiento system
A. was very different from encomienda.
B. made up of larger regions.
C. still used Indian labor.
D. much fairer for all.
5. For Americans Manifest Destiny meant being more responsive to Indian land rights.
6. The Indian New Deal or Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
A. continued allotment because it successfully changed Indians to
B. returned unsold land to tribes.
C. ended allotment.
D. a and b
E. b and c
7. In 1832 the U.S. Supreme Court denied Indian sovereignty.
8. The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 ended allotment and reorganized tribal governments.
9. The theory of Unilinear Cultural Evolution, popular in the 1800s and early 1900s
A. classified people as savage, barbaric, or civilized.
B. was used to justify the harsh treatment of people deemed uncivilized.
C. used a phonetic alphabet as a sign of civilization.
D. all of the above
E. none of the above
10. While culture areas are useful for comparison and reference, they may ignore cultural and environmental diversity.
11. The text defines six natural geographic areas that overlap into culture
12. The names we have for Native American peoples seldom come from
A. their enemies.
C. places where they lived.
13. Lewis H. Morgan, an American social scientist in the 1800s,
A. wrote the most accurate study of the Pawnee.
B. believed the study of kinship unimportant.
C. devised the concept of Unilinear Cultural Evolution.
D. was a founding member of the National Museum of the American Indian.
14. Agriculture was introduced in the Americas by Mesoamerica about 3000 years ago.
15. Native Americans can be defined
A. by their color.
B. by their clothing.
C. by their religion.
Second – Write the answer to the discussion.
Discuss at least three possible origins of American Indians.
Which is preferred by scientists and why?
Discuss how this creates problems with tribes.
Three – Write your reaction to Heather Miller opinion about the discussion.
“There are three possible origins of American Indians according to our text book An Introduction to American Indians. The first origin is Cosmology. The belief that Indians have always been means that they did not originate from anywhere, they were simply always there according to Mark Sutton (17).
The second origin relates to humanity as found in the Bible. Some European Christians had problems with this theory because they even questioned if Indians were human. Once the Pope determined they were they thought that they must have been part “…of the lost tribe of Israel …(or) from lost continents of Atlantis or Mu (Sutton, 17).
The last theory was a Western scientific theory that the Indians origin came from one of three land bridges. One land bridge would be from “North America to northwestern Europe”, one from “South America to an unknown location” and one from Alaska and northeastern Asia” (Sutton, 19). This was the method preferred by scientists because it supported their hypothesis, observations and data. This is also known as a “scientific method”. (Sutton, 19)
The Western scientific theory may create problems with tribes because some tribes believe they always existed. It also categorizes the tribes based on where they came from and what land bridge they may have traveled. The scientific method may try to group American Indians as one large group, when there are many tribes that worship differently, believe differently and have different rituals. Most American Indians believe they are Indian because they know they are Indian, it is a state of mind for them and the belief is passed down from generation to generation through their ancestory which relates to the first origin that they always existed.
Sutton, Mark Q. An Introduction to Native North America.”
Write your reaction to Michelle Bellblossom opinion about the discussion.
The three origins of American Indians are rooted in the belief of cosmology, the origin of humanity as chronicled by the Bible, and the Bering Land Bridge (Sutton, 2012).
Mark Sutton (2012) explains the cosmology perspective (oral tradition and ceremony) is based on the tribal beliefs as to their origin, and how they arrived in the New World. These stories of creation from the creator of the universe explain how American Indians came into existence. Examples of creation stories are: Navajo Creation Story, Apache Creation Story, Aztec Creation Story, Comanche Creation Story (Navajo.org & Indians.org). These stories were not written, but told in verbal context and through ceremonies. Many cultures used oral tradition for the purpose of transmitting cultural material through folklore.
The origin of humanity as chronicled by the Bible is a perspective that is problematic because European Christians did not believe in native Gods or worshiping more than one deity. European Christian believed their God and religion was superior to American Indian religion. Other biblical perspectives believe that American Indians were the descendant of the Lost Tribes of Israel, or from the lost continents of Atlantis or Mu. Many also believed that they cross the Atlantic Ocean from Egypt (Sutton, 2012, pg.17).
The most preferred perspective regarding the origin of American Indians is the Bering Land Bridge. This theory supports the idea that natives migrated from Siberia to Alaska across a frozen land bridge that spanned the Bering Straits / Bering Sea. This frozen land bridge was cause by extreme cold climate during the Ice age. Archaeologists believe that there were many migration routes into the Americas (Sutton, 2012).
Mark Sutton (2013) explains most scientists agree with this perspective because there is archaeological evidence that trace the migration route through the Bering Straits. This evidence can be supported by empirical science, which requires the use of scientific methods to prove testable theories and turn them into laws. For example, archaeologists think there are some physical similarities with native people and Asian. Archaeologists have found and studied artifacts and skeletal morphology, DNA, linguistics and blood groups to connect American Indians to North America with northeastern Asia. Last, spear points were found in Clovis, New Mexico that match spear points and artifacts found in Beringia.
All of these perspectives except for the cosmology point of view may create problems with the tribes because of contradictory beliefs as it pertains to in-situ model versus the non-Indian theories of migration. Also there are many native tribes with different languages, customs, rituals and beliefs, so we must ask the question which tribe’s perspective on origin is correct. Every tribe would answer “theirs.” This perspective would cause prejudice and discrimination among the tribes due to ethnocentrism.
We must learn to respect the customs and beliefs of the tribes we study. It’s important to observe native cultures based on their standards and not the standards of Western society and or pit tribes against each other based on their differences.
Indians.Org. (2013, October). Retrieved October 23, 2013, from https://www.indians.org/welker/legend.htm
Navajo Legends. (2013, October). Retrieved October, 23, 2013, from https://www.navajolegends.org/navajo-creation-story/
Sutton, M. (2013). An Introduction to Native North America. 4TH edition. Boston: Pearson Publishing.
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