Philosophy Final Exam

Final Exam Study Sheet ( Short essay question )

1. What is the definition of philosophy? To answer this question you must do

two things. First, you must identify and define the two Greek roots of the

word. Second, you must provide a more general discussion of the nature

of philosophical thinking and the ultimate aims of philosophical thinking.

2. Explain the difference between a valid argument and a sound argument.

Which is considered to be the stronger kind of argument? Why?

3. What kinds of values were espoused in Homer and Hesiod? How did these

values encourage the discipline of philosophy in ancient Greece?

4. Describe the philosophical concerns of the pre-Socratic philosophers. How

did their concerns differ from each other? How did their philosophical

concerns differ from Socrates’ philosophical concerns?

5. Why is Socrates described as the “father” of Western Philosophy? What is

the Socratic Method?

6. According to Hume there is no “self.” Write an essay that explains Hume’s

position. To do this successfully you will need to begin by identifying the

two distinct entities that according to Hume make up the contents of our

7. Determinists, Compatibilists, and Indeterminists all have something to say

about causality. Write an essay that explains and compares each of these

philosophical perspectives.

8. What is Aristotle’s fourfold schema of causality? What does it explain?

9. Plato and Locke have very different views about the nature of reality. The

also have very different views about how human beings come to have

knowledge of reality. Write an essay that explains and also compares the

metaphysics and epistemology of these two thinkers.

10.Descartes famously proclaimed, “I think, I am.” Write an essay that

explains what the significance of this statement is within the context of

Descartes’ philosophy. In other words, explain what his general objectives

are, and what role this realization plays in his philosophy.

11. Be sure you know the answers to that question. You will need to

have fully mastered that material to do well on the final examination!

Q: One essay question

a) what they each of them say about the causality?

what they said about the causality ?

They = Determinists, Compatibilist, Indeterminists

each of them =  Determinism, Compatibilism, Indeterminism

EX) Determinists said about causality that~~~~~.

b) find the similarity in each of them =  Determinism, Compatibilism, Indeterminism



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