Based on MTF2011 data, we present the cross-tabulation for student race and how many of their friends smoke marijuana. [In SPSS Exercise 5, we examined the relationship between student and friends who smoke cigarettes or drink alcohol


  1. Identify the dependent and independent variables for this table.


  1. What proportion of black, white, and Hispanic respondents reported that most or all of their friends smoke marijuana? Calculate these proportions separately.


  1. Explain the relationship between student race and the number of friends who smoke marijuana.





Illegal immigration in the United States is a complex matter, and people have diverse and conflicting ideas on how to best address it. The 2010 GSS contains several questions on this topic. For this exercise, we present the SPSS analysis of political party identification and the variable UNDOOKID, which measures support of the statement whether children of illegal immigrants should qualify for citizenship. citizenship?


  1. What percent of Democrats indicate that children of immigrants should qualify for What percent of Republicans? political party


  1. Based on an alpha of .01, what can you conclude about the relationship between identification and UNDOCKID?






Teens were asked in the MTF 2012 survey to report their level of happiness (how are things these days?). The bivariate table includes responses organized by teen’s race. Based on an alpha of .05, test whether race and happiness are independent.




Explain what is meant by a positive relationship between two variables and a negative relationship between two variables. Give an example of a situation in criminology or criminal justice in which we would expect to find a positive relationship and one in which we would expect to find a negative relationship. Can one assign direction when both variables in a table are dichotomous?


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